Well, I ditched the bin2o rules that came with the devkitPro toolchain, and used a separate bin2o program, and now I can properly access my binary audio data. I'm sure that I was doing something slightly wrong (data alignment? wrong section? wrong arm/thumb compilation?) as it works for other people, and for the examples that I've looked at.
But what I have now works, and that's good enough for me. Sound is almost finished.